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Mongolian brief history   

Mongolia covers 1.566.500 square kilometer, which is roughly the same size as the Western Europe, only 3.0 million people inhabit this large territory.

With an average high of 1580 meter above the sea level. Mongolia is one of highest countries in the world. The land is covered in mountains, dessert and big steppe. There are 3 big mountain ranges, the Altai, Khangai, and Khentii Magnificent rocky mountains are the source of hundreds of clean streams. Mongolia’s climate is dry with extreme continental temperatures. Summer lasts from mid November till April. Spring and Fall are relatively short with a population of 3 million the over of population density is only 1.5 person’s per square kilometer. 905 percent of Mongolian population are Mongols/Khalkh/, 4%Kazak, and 1% other national minorities. The official language is Mongolian. Kazak speaks their native Kazak, but it is only spoken in Bayan-Olgii province.

 

Ulaanbaatar  history

The first recorded capital city of the recent Mongolian Empire was created in 1639. It was called Orgoo was originally located at the monastery Da Khuree 420kilometer far from Ulaanbaatar in Arkhangai province. The monastery was the residence of the 5 year old Zanabazar. The city was often moved /probably around 25 times/ to various places along the Orkhon, Selenge and Tuul Rivers. Throughout such a movement city was given some fairly unexciting official and unofficial names, including Khuree/camp/ in 1706. In 1778 the capital was built at its present location and called the city of Felt. Later the city became known as the Ikh Khuree/ Great Camp/, and was under the rule of the Bogd Khaan /Living Buddha/. In 1654 construction works were launched and expansion of Orgoo finished in 1680. Later on the city was renamed Jikhee Khuree.

However during the following 200 years Mongolia was under the Manchu domination. The victory over the Manchu Dynasty in 1911, greatly affected further development of the city that was renamed Niislel Khuree /capital city/ by the Khaan’s decree, as the government and Bogd Khaan’s palace were located in the city.

The name of capital city was used till 1923, the capital city of Mongolia was renamed as the city of Ulaanbaatar / Red Hero/ and declared the official capital of an independent Mongolia.
 

Mongolian short history

Since stone age Mongolia has several significant prehistoric sites such as the Northern Cave of Blue(Paleolithic cave drawings) in Khovd province, White cave in province of Bayankhongor, and Dornod province (Neolithic farming village) which all suggests that Mongolia had been occupied for more than 800000 years. The Mongol tribes emerged from an area which had been inhabited by humans as far back as the Stone Age, over 100000 years ago. The peoples there went through the bronze age and iron age, then forming tribal alliances and beginning to battle with China. By the third century BC, there was evidence of a nomadic culture, comprising Turkic peoples in tribes which battled with each other and neighboring cultures. They were subdued temporarily by the growing strength of Chinese Tang Dynasty in the 7th century. Over the next few hundred years, the Chinese subtly encouraged warfare among the Mongol Tribes, as a way of warring tribes, forgiving them into a fighting force which went on to create the largest contiguous empire in world history.

 

Chinggis Khaan period

The history of Mongolia is dominated by the mythical stature of Genghis khan( Chinggis Khaan for the Mongol) who has the head of these orders of wandering tribes reunified under its banner, conquered at the 13th century the vastest empire which the ground ever know, cutting through has path of blood and fury of the Pacific Ocean to hheart of Europe. Temuujin, its true name before being proclaimed Chinggis Khaan is quasi has divinity for Mongolian it brought to them glory the conquest and has code of conduct and organization.

 

Geography

Mongolia is a landlocked country in Northern Asia, trategically located between China and Russia. At 1.564.116 km2 (603909 sq km), Mongolia is the worlds 19th largest country after Iran. It is significantly larger than the next largest country. The geography of Mongolia is varied with the Gobi desert to the south and cold and mountainous regions to the north and west. Much of Mongolia consists of steppes and much of gobi desert. The terrain is one of the mountains and rolling plateaus, with a high degree of relief. Overall, the land slopes from the high Altai mountains of the west and the north plains and depressions in the east and the south. The Khuiten peak in extreme western Mongolia on the Chinese border is the highest point (518 meters), an otherwise undistinguished spot in the eastern Mongolian plain. The country has an average elevation of 1580 meter. The landscape includes one of the Asia’s largest freshwater lakes (lake khovsgol), many salt lakes, marshes, san dunes, rolling grasslands, alpine forests, and permanent mountain glaciers. Northern and Western Mongolia are seismically active zones, with frequent earthquakes and many hot springs and extinct volcanoes. The productive regions of Mongolia is a tableland ranging from 3000 to 5000 ft (914 to 1524 meter) in elevation are in the north, which is well drained by numerous rivers, including the Hovd, Onon, Selenge and Tula.